Quantum Devices

A mega-trend with high demands on lithography

Research and development activities on quantum devices are strongly growing worldwide. Future quantum devices promise to revolutionize computing, sensing and data communication. Prototypes and ideas for quantum devices are very diverse and based on a wide variety of particles and quasi particles and their specific properties and interactions.


  • Ultra-high resolution patterning e.g. for well defined tunneling gaps or plasmonic cavities
  • Non-invasive lithography in order not to disturb the quantum materials like topological insulators
  • Accurate and fast placement of electrodes onto low dimensional materials with unknown position (2D material flakes, dispersed nanowires etc)
  • The 3D environment and topography can be crucial to finetune photon interactions in quantum devices

Application images


SQUID array

An array of SQUIDs (superconducting quantum interference device) used for the readout of metallic magnetic microcalorimeters (high-resolution particle detectors operated at low temperatures). These devices are micro-fabricated in large arrays, and comprise up to 18 layers with submicron features. The MLA150 ensures the extreme overlay accuracy crucial for this application.
Courtesy of the Kirchhoff Institute for Physics (KIP), Heidelberg University

Atomic Memristors

Sharp vertical Ag electrodes made with the NanoFrazor tip. The precisely controlled distance to a Pt allowed the atomic filaments to switch on and off at high frequencies (>100 MHz) and low voltages (100 mV).
Courtesy of Prof. Leuthold group at ETH Zurich, Publication in 2019

Photonic molecules

Gaussians with varying distance ∆x written in PPA and etched into SiO2, to be stacked in distributed Bragg reflector, forming a photonic molecule. Cross-sections show Gaussian profiles for different ∆x, which controls the coupling strength between the cavities. Precise Gaussian profile is patterned using the NanoFrazor and the closed-loop lithography approach.
Courtesy of IBM Research Zurich, publication in 2018

Key benefits


  • Ultra-high resolution

    for well defined and low roughness features and gaps.

  • Non-invasive nanolithography

    without charged high energy beams allow working with sensitive materials.

  • Accurate overlay

    by simply drawing the electrodes onto the AFM image or optical image.

  • Accurate grayscale lithography

    to control 3D topography down to the single nanometer.




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