Nanofluidics and Nanobiology

Nanofluidic devices enabled
by 3D direct-write nanolithography

Handling small volumes of liquids in nanofluidic channels is often used in nano- and biotechnology. The applications range from DNA sequencing to sorting, assembling and manipulating nanoparticles, proteins, enzymes or viruses.


  • Ultra-high resolution holes and channels for single DNA molecules to pass through
  • Accurate 3D topography of a channel guides of particles in the liquid
  • Local variations of surface chemistry control binding and assembly of biomolecules

Application images


Brownian motors-based nanoparticle sorting device

Nanofluidic ratchets fabricated with single-nanometer accuracy by NanoFrazor patterning. A nanofluidic device with a precisely engineered 3D topography harnesses Brownian motion to separate particles with down to 1nm size difference by guiding them in opposite directions.
Courtesy of IBM Research, Publications in Science and PRL 2018

Ultra-high resolution enzyme assembly

Themolysin enzymes trapped in 10-nm-wide lines written with a NanoFrazor Explore.
Courtesy of Riedo group at NYU, Publications in 2019

Biomimetic topography with nanometer precision for stem cell research

The nanostructure of a tendon tissue (left: AFM of the original tendon) patterned and imaged with NanoFrazor Explore into biocompatible PPA resist (right image). Human stem cells adhered, spread and proliferated directly on the nanostructured PPA surface.
Courtesy of Melbourne Nanofabrication Center, published in 2019

Key benefits


  • Ultra-high Resolution

    Pattern small holes, channels or assembly traps.

  • Grayscale Lithography

    Control 3D topography down to the single nanometer.

  • Nanoscale Thermal Conversion

    Create local binding sites, e.g. amine groups.

  • Easy operation

    Inspected nanopatterns in-situ, no vacuum or clean room required.




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