2D Materials

Low-damage lithography with accurate
overlay on sensitive 2D materials

Devices made of 2D materials and their stacks often exhibit interesting physics. Impurities and defects, however, can limit performance of such devices.


  • Preserve the pristine material’s properties
  • Accurate and fast alignment to flakes or existing electrodes
  • High resolution patterning (e.g. for creation of ribbons)
  • Glove-box compatibility for 2D materials sensitive to air contact

Application images


Excellent electrical contacts to MoS2

Vanishingly small Schottky barriers of an MoS2 transistor fabricated using NanoFrazor enabled highest on/off ratios ever reported with metal contacts.
Courtesy of Prof. Elisa Riedo, NYU, see Nat.El.2019

Germanium nanoribbon devices

Top gates patterned over a Germanium nanoribbon without using charged particles (AFM image). NanoFrazor technology helps to avoid charge deposited by electron beam lithography, which can be detrimental to electrical properties of sensitive materials.
Courtesy of Prof. Georgios Katsaros from IST, Austria

Locating and shaping 2D materials

Single-layer MoS2 flakes located through the resist layers and patterned with high resolution. Inset shows final devices after reactive ion etching.
Courtesy of Dr. Armin Knoll, IBM Research Zurich, and Prof. Andras Kis, EPFL

Key benefits


  • Markerless overlay

    In-situ AFM for accurate alignment.

  • Non-invasive patterning

    Pristine material properties not affected by charged particles or resist residues.

  • Ultra-high resolution

    Narrow gaps, ribbons, gate electrodes, constrictions, etc.

  • Nanopatterning in a glove box

    Sensitive materials, controlled atmosphere.




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