3D Lithography by Two-Photon Polymerization

Real 3D capability

Two-Photon Polymerization (TPP) is a maskless direct laser writing technology. With TPP, the light-matter interaction only takes place within the volume of a focused laser spot.
The simultaneous absorption of two photons in the focused spot triggers the locally confined polymerization of an exposed photosensitive material.
This laser focus can be moved throughout the volume of the photoresist in all three dimensions, allowing for complex 3D structures to be written along the laser’s trajectory.
Thanks to its flexible nature, TPP fabrication is a great solution in several application areas such as micro-optics, photonics, micro-mechanics, and biomedicine.

Advantages of TPP

High resolution and real 3D printing capabilities set TPP apart from alternative technologies and enable novel applications in different industries.

Complex Structures in One Process Step
Very complex structures can be fabricated in one single process step without the need for subsequent deposition of fresh material as in conventional 3D printing technologies (e.g. metal 3D printing or stereolithography).

Resolution below the Diffraction Limit
Non-linear absorption means that printing resolution at the 100 nm scale can be achieved. The resolution is therefore not limited by diffraction, as opposed to conventional laser scanning methods.

Accuracy and Scalability
Very accurate structures can be realized, ranging from the sub-micrometer to the centimeter scale. TPP bridges the gap between nano- and microfabrication tools and conventional 3D printing.

Stitching-free Fabrication Capability
Superior quality of optical components without stitching defects can be achieved with Infinite Field-of-View (IFoV) writing mode, using the synchronized 5-axes design in MPO 100 direct laser writing equipment.
The picture on the left shows a cylindrical microlens array fabricated with stitching. A major drawback of this technique are unwanted stitching artifacts along the borders which will lead to a degradation of quality for many optical components.
The picture on the right shows the cylindrical microlens array fabricated by using IFoV writing mode. By synchronizing the stage and galvo axes, it is possible to write large structures without stitching.

Compatibility with Nano- and Microfabrication Processes
Since the TPP technology uses similar materials (photoresists and solvents) as in standard nano- and microfabrication technologies, integration into conventional workflows is seamless.

On-Device Printing
Structures can be printed directly on active (LEDs, photodiodes, EELs, VCSELs) or passive (fibers, irregular substrates) devices.
This eliminates time intensive legacy processes such as active alignment of individual components.

Microoptics for various applications
Microlens arrays with varying sizes and shapes can be used for imaging and sensor applications.

Related images

suitable Systems

MPO 100 – a TPP tool for 3D Lithography and 3D Microprinting for optics, photonics, mechanics, and biomedical engineering

MPO 100

  • Two-Photon Polymerization Multi-User Tool

Multi-User Tool for 3D Lithography and 3D Microprinting of microstructures with applications in micro-optics, photonics, micro-mechanics and biomedical engineering.

Get in Touch

We are always at your disposal.
Please send us your request.

Sign up

Subscribe to our newsletter
to receive the newest information.

Stay connected

Follow us on social media to benefit
from a range of useful resources.

Scroll to Top